WHAT IS DOPING?

A comprehensive guide by the UIAA Anti-Doping Commission related to the subject of doping.

Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following anti-doping rule violations:

1. Presence of Prohibited Substance:
Presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete’s sample

2. Use of Prohibited Substance/Method:
Use or attempted use by an athlete of a prohibited substance or method

3. Refusing Sample Collection:
Refusing, or failing without compelling justification, to submit to sample collection after notification as authorized in applicable anti-doping rules, or otherwise evading sample collection

4. Failure to File Whereabouts & Missed Tests:
Violation of applicable requirements regarding athlete availability for out-of-competition testing, including failure to file required whereabouts information and missed tests (i.e., any combination of three missed tests and/or filing failures within an 18-month period may be deemed a doping violation)

5. Tampering:
Tampering or attempted tampering with any part of the doping control process

6. Possession:
Possession of a prohibited substance and prohibited method

7. Trafficking:
Trafficking or attempted trafficking in any prohibited substance or method

8. Administration:
Administration or attempted administration to an athlete of a prohibited substance and/or method; or assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, covering up or any other type of complicity involving an anti-doping rule violation or any attempted anti-doping rule violation.

9. Complicity (assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, conspiring, covering up or any other type of intentional complicity involving an anti-doping rule violation)

10. Prohibited association

WHAT SUBSTANCES AND METHODS ARE BANNED?

The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods (List), updated annually by WADA, is the International Standard defining what is prohibited in- and out-of-competition. The List also indicates whether particular substances are banned in particular sports.
Here you can find The 2017 Prohibited List
https://www.wada-ama.org/en/prohibited-list

WHAT ELSE SHOULD ATHLETES KNOW ABOUT BANNED SUBSTANCES AND METHODS?

Athletes should always check with their IF to find out what additional substances and methods are prohibited in their sport.
Also, athletes should always make their doctor aware that they are bound by the specific rules of their sport. Those who are unsure of what a product contains should not take it until they are sure it is not prohibited. Ignorance is never an excuse.

WHAT SHOULD ATHLETES KNOW ABOUT USING SUBSTANCES?

Extreme caution is recommended regarding supplement use. It is WADA’s position that a good diet is of utmost importance to athletes. The use of dietary supplements by athletes is a concern because, in many countries, the manufacturing and labeling of products may not follow strict rules, which may lead to a supplement containing an undeclared substance that is prohibited under anti-doping regulations. A significant number of positive tests have been attributed to the misuse of supplements, and taking a poorly labeled dietary supplement is not an adequate defense in a doping hearing.

WHAT ABOUT MEDICAL CONDITIONS?

Athletes, like all others, may at times experience a medical condition that requires them to use particular medicines. The substances that an athlete may be required to take to treat a condition could fall under the List. However, by applying and obtaining a therapeutic use exemption (TUE) from the IF or NADO, an athlete may be allowed to take the necessary medicine. Athletes who need to apply for a TUE should request more information about the TUE application process from their IF (for international-level athletes) or NADO (for national-level athletes).

WHAT ARE DOPING CONTROLS?

Worldwide doping controls—or athlete testing—are carried out in accordance with the Code and the International Standard for Testing (IST). Athletes who compete at the international and national level may be tested anytime, anywhere. Specially trained and accredited doping control personnel carry out all tests.

THE 11 STEPS OF DOPING CONTROL

1. Athlete Selection
2. Notification
3. Reporting to the Doping Control Station
4. Selection of a Collection Vessel
5. Provision of Sample
6. Volume of Urine
7. Selection of a Sample Collection Kit
8. Splitting the Sample
9. Sealing the Samples
10. Measuring Specific Gravity
11. Completion of the Doping Control Form

VIDEO:WORLD ANTI-DOPING AGENCY – THE DOPING CONTROL PROCESS FOR ATHLETES

1. ATHLETE SELECTION
You can be selected for doping control at any time and any place.

2. NOTIFICATION
A Doping Control Officer or chaperone will notify you that you have been selected for doping control. The DCO or chaperone will inform you of your rights and responsibilities. These include the right to have a representative present throughout the process.
You will be asked to sign a form confirming that you have been selected for doping control.

3. REPORTING TO THE DOPING CONTROL STATION
You should report immediately to the doping control station.
The DCO or chaperone may allow you to delay reporting to the station for an activity such as a news conference or to complete a training session.
However, once you have been notified that you have been selected for doping control, the DCO or chaperone will accompany you until the completion of the sample collection process.

4 SELECTION OF A COLLECTION VESSEL
You will be given a choice of individually sealed collection vessels. You may select one. You should verify that the equipment is intact and has not been tampered with. You should, at all times, maintain control of the collection vessel.

5. PROVIDING A SAMPLE
During the sample provision, only you and the DCO or chaperone of the same gender are permitted in the washroom.
You will be asked to wash your hands.
You will then be asked to raise or lower your clothing so that the DCO or chaperone has an unobstructed view while you provide the sample.

6. VOLUME OF URINE
The DCO shall ensure, in your full view, that you have provided the minimum required volume: 90 mL. If at first you are unable to provide 90 mL, you will be asked to provide more until that level is met.

7. SELECTION OF SAMPLE COLLECTION KIT
You will be given a choice of individual sealed sample collection kits. Choose one. You should verify the equipment is intact and has not been tampered with. Open the kit. Confirm the sample code numbers on the bottles, the lids and containers all match.

8. SPLITTING THE SAMPLE
Now you are going to split the sample, pouring at least 30 mL into the B bottle and the remaining urine into the A bottle.
You will be asked to leave a small amount in the collection vessel. The reason for this is so the DCO can measure its specific gravity.
Pour the urine yourself unless you need help. In this instance, you will need to provide consent for your representative or the DCO to pour on your behalf.

9. SEALING THE SAMPLES
Next, seal both the A and B bottles. You (or your representative) and the DCO should verify that the bottles are sealed properly.

10. MEASURING SPECIFIC GRAVITY
The DCO is required to measure the sample‚ specific gravity. If it does not meet certain requirements, you will be asked to provide another sample.

11. COMPLETING THE DOPING CONTROL FORM
On this form, you should provide information about any medication, prescription or non-prescription or dietary supplements you have taken recently.
This form is also the place to note any comments you may have regarding any part of the doping control process.

You will be asked whether you consent to have your sample used anonymously for research once the analysis of doping control purposes is completed. You may say yes or no.

Be absolutely certain everything is correct, including the sample code number.

Make sure, too, that the laboratory copy of the form does not include any information that could identify you.

You will be asked to sign the form.

At the completion of collection, you will receive a copy of your doping control form.

11. THE LABORATORY PROCESS
Your samples are packed for shipping by a secure process.
Your samples are sent to a WADA-accredited laboratory. When processing your samples, that lab will adhere to the International Standard for Laboratories, ensuring the chain of custody is maintained.
Your A sample is analyzed.
Your B sample is securely stored. It may be used to confirm an Adverse Analytical Finding from the A sample.
The lab will report the results of your sample analysis to the responsible Anti-Doping Organization and to WADA.

B SAMPLE PROCESS
Laboratories analyze samples solely by code numbers, not by athletes names.
A laboratory that has analyzed an athlete, A sample reports the results simultaneously to WADA and to the particular Anti-Doping Organization.

ADVERSE ANALYTICAL FINDING
If your A sample reports a positive test in the language of the Code, an Adverse Analytical Finding, the organization responsible for results management will conduct an initial review.
That review is focused on two parts:
1. Do you have a Therapeutic Use Exemption for the substance found in the sample?
2. Was the sample collection and analysis done according to procedures?

You will be notified in writing of the results and your rights regarding the analysis your B sample.

If you decide to request a B sample analysis, or if the Anti-Doping Organization requests a B sample analysis, you may attend or choose to send a representative on your behalf.
In the meantime, a Provisional Suspension must be imposed when an A sample returns an Adverse Analytical Finding for a Prohibited Method or for a Prohibited Substance other than a Specified Substance. At the same time, the Code gives you important hearing rights, should you choose to exercise them, in connection with the imposition of such a suspension. These opportunities can depend on the timing of an individual case.

If the B sample confirms the analysis of the A sample, the Anti-Doping Organization will proceed with the results management process, including your right to a fair hearing.
If the B sample does not confirm the analysis of the A sample, no further action will be taken and, of course, any Provisional Suspension will be lifted.

WHAT IS IN-COMPETITION TESTING?

ADOs coordinate in-competition testing so that there is only one organization testing at an event. Unless provided otherwise in the rules of the relevant IF or event ruling body, in-competition means the period commencing 12 hours before a competition in which the athlete is scheduled to participate through the end of the competition and the sample collection process related to the competition.
Criteria for the selection of athletes is pre-determined, based on the regulations of the relevant IF or event ruling body. Sample collection takes place in accordance with the IST. Athletes are notified of their selection for testing. Samples are analyzed for “in-competition substances” as outlined in the Prohibited List.

WHAT IS OUT-OF-COMPETITION TESTING?

Out-of-competition testing, or any testing done outside of an event, ensures that athletes can be tested at any time and at any place.
For more information, contact your sports federation or your National or Regional Anti-Doping Organization. Additional athlete resources, including the following listed below, are available on WADA’s Web site at www.wada-ama.org

• The World Anti-Doping Code
• The Prohibited List and other International Standards
• Publications about TUE requirements, the doping control process
• The Anti-Doping Quiz, an online interactive game about anti-doping

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