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Mountain Classification

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As part of its commitment to developing international standards for mountaineering, the UIAA has officially classified the 82 recognised 4,000m summits in the Alps and the 129 main peaks in the Pyrenees.

4,000ers of the Alps

In March 1994, the UIAA Bulletin published – in collaboration with the Club Alpino Italiano (CAI) – an official list of the 82 Alpine summits higher than 4,000m.

The Bulletin read:

In the Alps the morphology of the peaks and summits above 4,000m is quite varied. There are single massive mountains with a well-defined morphology, but also more ‘ragged’ mountains, with several tips, small peaks, shoulders and small reliefs which are above 4,000m and often bear an altitude mark but no name on the maps.

The basic principles that guided the compilation of the list included:

1. General concept of summit: any point of the alpine surface which is elevated by a certain difference in height in respect to the surrounding ground.

2. Any summit must be ‘autonomous’ in the sense of possessing individuality, interest, and other characteristics in order to be included in the ‘alpine summits of over 4,000 m’.

3. A certain number of summits, with a well-defined morphology, are automatically included in the list. For the choice of other summits, however, even for some included in precedent lists, but considered to be at the brink of acceptability, other criteria of choice had to be applied.

4. The list is intended to be primarily for mountaineers. Therefore, it is not based only on topographic criteria (which are anyway the main element), but also on complementary, more subjective criteria which could change the evolution of alpinism.

The criteria of choice applied was:

1. Topographic criterium: for each summit, the level difference between it and the highest adjacent pass or notch should be at least 30 m (calculated as average of the summits at the limit of acceptability). An additional criterium can be the horizontal distance between a summit and the base of another adjacent 4000er.

2. Morphological criterium: takes into account the overall morphology and aspect of a summit (applied especially for shoulders, secondary summits, rock outcrops, etc).

3. Mountaineering criterium: it takes into account the importance of a summit from the point of view of mountaineering: the qualities of the routes reaching it, the historical significance, and how frequently it is climbed.

Peak
Altitude
Group
Country
Mont Blanc4,808.73mMont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Mont Blanc de Courmayeur4,748Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Dufourspitze4,634Monte Rosa MassifSwitzerland
Nordend4,609Monte Rosa MassifItaly/Switzerland
Zumsteinspitze4,563Monte Rosa MassifItaly/Switzerland
Signalkuppe4,554Monte Rosa MassifItaly/Switzerland
Dom4,545Mischabel GroupSwitzerland
Liskamm (Eastern Summit)4,527Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Weisshorn4,505Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Täschhorn4,491Mischabel GroupSwitzerland
Liskamm (Western Summit)4,479Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Matterhorn4,478Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Picco Luigi Amedeo4,469Mont Blanc GroupItaly
Mont Maudit4,465Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Parrotspitze4,432Monte Rosa MassifItaly/Switzerland
Dent Blanche4,357Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Ludwigshöhe4,341Monte Rosa MassifItaly/Switzerland
Nadelhorn4,327Mischabel GroupSwitzerland
Schwarzhorn (Corno Nero)4,322Monte Rosa MassifItaly
Grand Combin (Grafeneire)4,314Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Dôme du Goûter4,304Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Lenzspitze4,294Mischabel GroupSwitzerland
Finsteraarhorn4,274Bernese AlpsSwitzerland
Mont Blanc du Tacul4,248Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Grand Pilier d’Angle4,243Mont Blanc GroupItaly
Stecknadelhorn4,241Mischabel GroupSwitzerland
Castor4,223Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Zinalrothorn4,221Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Hohberghorn4,219Mischabel GroupSwitzerland
Vincent Pyramid4,215Monte Rosa MassifItaly
Grandes Jorasses (Pointe Walker)4,208Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Alphubel4,206Mischabel GroupSwitzerland
Rimpfischhorn4,199Mischabel GroupSwitzerland
Aletschhorn4,193Bernese AlpsSwitzerland
Strahlhorn4,190Mischabel GroupSwitzerland
Grand Combin (Valsorey)4,184Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Grandes Jorasses (Pointe Whymper)4,184Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Dent d’Hérens4,171Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Breithorn (Western Summit)4,164Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Breithorn (Central Summit)4,159Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Jungfrau4,158Bernese AlpsSwitzerland
Bishorn4,153Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Breithorn (Eastern Summit/ western Twin Peak)4,139Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Grand Combin (Tsessette)4,135Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Aiguille Verte4,122Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Aiguilles du Diable (L’Isolée)4,114Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey4,112Mont Blanc GroupItaly
Grandes Jorasses (Pointe Croz)4,110Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Aiguilles du Diable (Pointe Carmen)4,109Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Mönch4,107Bernese AlpsSwitzerland
Breithorn (Gendarm/ eastern Twin Peak)4,106Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Grande Rocheuse4,102Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Barre des Écrins4,102PelvouxFrance
Aiguilles du Diable (Pointe Médiane)4,097Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Pollux4,092Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Schreckhorn4,078Bernese AlpsSwitzerland
Breithorn (Roccia Nera)4,075Wallis AlpsItaly/Switzerland
Aiguilles du Diable (Pointe Chaubert)4,074Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Mont Brouillard4,069Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Grandes Jorasses (Pointe Marguerite)4,065Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Aiguilles du Diable (Corne du Diable)4,064Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Ober Gabelhorn4,063Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Gran Paradiso4,061Graian AlpsItaly
Aiguille de Bionnassay4,052Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Piz Bernina4,049Bernina GroupSwitzerland
Gross Fiescherhorn4,049Bernese AlpsSwitzerland
Vincent Pyramid (Punta Giordani/Giordanispetz)4,046Monte Rosa MassifItaly
Grandes Jorasses (Pointe Elena)4,045Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Grünhorn4,044Bernese AlpsSwitzerland
Lauteraarhorn4,042Bernese AlpsSwitzerland
Aiguille du Jardin4,035Mont Blanc GroupFrance
Dürrenhorn4,035Mischabel GroupSwitzerland
Allalinhorn4,027Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Hinter Fiescherhorn4,025Bernese AlpsSwitzerland
Weissmies4,017Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Dôme de Rochefort4,015Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Barre des Écrins (Dôme de Neige)4,015PelvouxFrance
Dent du Géant4,013Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Punta Baretti4,013Mont Blanc GroupItaly
Lagginhorn4,010Wallis AlpsSwitzerland
Aiguille de Rochefort4,001Mont Blanc GroupFrance/Italy
Les Droites4,000Mont Blanc GroupFrance

Note: An extended list includes 46 ‘lesser summits’. These exceptions regard mainly secondary summits or gendarmes which, even though they satisfy the topographic criterium, are part of other, well defined main summits, like the Grand Gerndarme of the Weissorn, or are of little significance like the nose of the Lyskamm. All other 4,000ers which do not meet the topographic criterium have been examined and considered according to the more subjective criteria (morphological, mountaineering).

3,000ers of the Pyrennes

In December 1995, the UIAA Bulletin published an official list of the 129 main peaks of the Pyrennes and the 83 secondary peaks.

The Bulletin read:

This list is the result of many years of work by a group of mountaineers from both Spain and France led by Jean Buyse. The guiding principles used in this list are very similar, if not equivalent, to those used for the Alps. The distinction between main peaks and secondary peaks, and rigid criteria of acceptance have been defined: peaks must have a name, and be on a map or guidebook to be considered for entry.

If they are the culmination (highest) point of a given mountain, or elevations at a meeting of at least three ridges descending from the same summit and delimiting the slopes of said summit, they have been included in the main list. If they satisfy the first two, but none of these last two criteria, then they appear in the list of secondary peaks.

Main Peaks

Zone 1: Balaïtous-Enfer-Argualas
Balaïtous3,144 m
Enfer central3,083 m
Enfer oriental3,076 m
Enfer occidental3,073 m
Frondella NE3,071 m
Garmo negro3,051 m
Argualas3,046 m
Algas3,036 m
Arnales3,006 m
Grande Fache3,005 m
Frondella SW3,001 m
Zone 2: Vignemale
Pique longue3,298 m
Clot de la Hount3,289 m
Cerbillona3,247 m
Pic central3,235 m
Pic de Montferrat3,219 m
Pointe Chausenque3,204 m
Piton Carré3,197 m
Grand Tapou3,150 m
Pic du Milieu3,130 m
Petit Vignemale3,032 m
Zone 3: Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido3,355 m
Cilindro de Marboré3,328 m
Soum de Ramond3,258 m
Pic du Marboré3,248 m
Pic de la cascade oriental3,161 m
Pic du Taillon3,144 m
Pic de la cascade central or Pic Brulle3,106 m
Pic de la cascade occidental3,095 m
Épaule du Marboré3,073 m
Astazou Oriental or Grand Astazou3,071 m
Baudrimont NW3,045 m
Gabietou occidental3,034 m
Gabietou oriental3,031 m
Baudrimont SE3,026 m
Astazou occidental or Petit Astazou3,012 m
Tour du Marboré3,009 m
Casque du Marboré3,006 m
Punta de las Olas3,002 m
Zone 4: La Munia
Pic de la Munia3,133 m
Serre Mourene3,090 m
Troumouse3,085 m
Heid3,022 m
Robiñera3,003 m
Zone 5: Néouvielle-Pic Long
Pic Long3,192 m
Campbieil3,173 m
Badet3,160 m
Pic de Néouvielle3,091 m
Maou3,074 m
Maubic3,058 m
Trois Conseillers3,039 m
Turon de Néouvielle3,035 m
Bugarret3,031 m
Pale Crabounouse3,021 m
Dent d’Estibere3,017 m
Pic Ramougn3,011 m
Estaragne3,006 m
Zone 6: Batoua-Batchimale
Pic Schrader3,177 m
Punta del Sabre3,136 m
Pointe Ledormeur3,120 m
Pic Marcos Feliu3,067 m
Batoua SW3,034 m
Abeille3,029 m
Pic de la Pez3,024 m
Lustou3,023 m
Pic du Port de la Pez3,018 m
Zone 7: Posets-Eristé
Posets peak3,375 m
Espadas3,332 m
Les Jumeaux Ravier3,160 m
Les Veterans3,125 m
Pavots3,121 m
Dent de Llardana3,085 m
Bardamina3,079 m
Pic de la Paul3,078 m
Grand Eriste3,053 m
Eriste S3,045 m
Beraldi3,025 m
Turets NW3,007 m
Zone 8: Clarabide-Perdiguero-Boum
Perdiguero3,222 m
Punta de Lliterola3,132 m
Pic des Gourgs Blancs3,129 m
Pic Royo3,121 m
Crabioules Oriental3,116 m
Seil Dera Baquo3,110 m
Pic de Maupas3,109 m
Pic Lezat3,107 m
Crabioules Occidental3,106 m
Pic Jean Arlaud3,065 m
Pic des Spijeoles3,065 m
Grand Quayrat3,060 m
Pic du Portillon d’Oô3,050 m
Pic Camboue3,043 m
Pic Gourdon3,034 m
Pic de Clarabide3,020 m
Pic de Gias3,011 m
Pic Belloc3,008 m
Pic de Boum3,006 m
Pic de Saint Saud3,003 m
Zone 9: Maladeta-Aneto
Aneto3,404 m
Pointe d'Astorg3,355 m
Pic Maudit3,350 m
Epaule de l’Aneto3,350 m
Pico del Medio3,346 m
La Maladeta3,308 m
Pico de Coronas3,293 m
Pic des Tempêtes3,290 m
1st Pic Occidental Maladeta3,254 m
Pic Margalida3,241 m
2nd Pic Occidental Maladeta3,220 m
Pic Russell3,205 m
3rd Pic Occidental Maladeta3,185 m
Pic le Bondidier3,185 m
Diente de Alba3,136 m
Pico de Alba3,118 m
Pic de Vallibierna3,067 m
Tuca de Culebras3,062 m
Pic Aragüells3,037 m
Tuc de Mulleres3,010 m
Zone 10: Besiberris
Besiberri Nord3,014 m
Punta Alta de Comalesbienes or Punta Alta3,014 m
Pic Celestin Passet3,002 m
Comaloforno3,033 m
Besiberri Sud3,030 m
Besiberri del MigS3,003 m
Besiberri del MigN3,002 m
Zone 11: Estats-Montcalm
Pic d'Estats3,143 m
Pic Verdaguer3,131 m
Punta Gabarró3,105 m
Pic du Port de Sullo3,072 m
Pic de Montcalm3,077 m